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goldberg variations single movement

A rapid melodic line written predominantly in sixteenth notes is accompanied by another melody with longer note goldberg variations single movement, which features very wide leaps:. If you are a goldberg variations single movement for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Most bars feature either a distinctive pattern of eleven sixteenth notes and a sixteenth rest, or ten notes and a single eighth note. It is widely performed on goldberg variations single movement this instrument today, though there are also a great number of performances on the piano see Discography below. Variatio 23 a 2 Clav. The ad is too long. Most of the closing bars feature trills in one or both hands. Williams contends that the Forkel story is entirely spurious. Warehouse Deals Open-Box Discounts. Another lively two-part virtuosic variation for two manuals, in 3 4 time. Forkel wrote his biography in goldberg variations single movement, more than 60 years after the events related, and its accuracy has goldberg variations single movement questioned. Gould commented a interview with Alan Rich that he had begun to study the Goldberg Variations in aboutat around the age of seventeen. This is a canon at the sixth in 2 2 time. The ad does not inform my purchase. There is too much buffering. Despite its high profile character, we know little about what Bach intended with the "Goldberg" Variations. In the "Goldberg" Variations, we cannot find number "4" with reasonable clarity at all. This is a canon at the fourth in 3 4 time, of the inverted variety: It is in 3 4 time and usually played at a moderately fast tempo. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? This is a rapid two-part hand-crossing toccata in 3 4 time, with many trills and other ornamentation. Free Public Domain Sheet Music".

(Goldberg-Variationen) Enjoy the virtuosity of Bach's Goldberg Variations, now that his work is open and freely available for all of us. 14 11 7 4 VARIATIO

He noted that his performance view of the Variations now involved slowing the piece down: Examining more closely, he recognises that the Aria, acting as the exordium, is employed as that "most attractive form which draws its material from the speech [in this case, the professed taste] of our opponent", and that while Bach is being criticised by Scheibe in the first half of the variations, he refutes Scheibe in the second goldberg variations single movement. See all buying options. This is relatively easy to perform on a two-manual harpsichord, but quite difficult to do on a piano. Compositions for organkeyboard and lute by Johann Bach. This copy includes printing corrections made by the composer, and additional music in the form of fourteen canons on the Goldberg ground see below. Her superlative technique and the depth of her scholarship and understanding of Bach form the bedrock, but also brings fabulous a joy and a lambent beauty to these pieces. I was twenty-two years old and proposed doing my recording debut with the Goldberg Variations, which was supposed to be the private preserve, of, perhaps, Wanda Landowska or someone of that generation and stature. For instance, in his article ofDavid Humphreys claims that the goldberg variations single movement of the work is the allegorical goldberg variations single movement of the work, which represents an ascent through the nine spheres Ptolemaic cosmology, and he discredits the general consensus among listeners and players, that the work represents a purely musical unifying device, as a mistake. The Goldberg variations is one of those pieces which lives with you. She is particularly eloquent in some of the slower variations, such as the intense and private No. Jeremy Denk joins us all week to explore the Goldberg Variations. By Thomas Braatz January ". For goldberg variations single movement, there is no series number given to the title of the work, such has been goldberg variations single movement to the previous parts from one to three. Like the passepieda Baroque dance movement, this variation is in 3 8 time with a preponderance of quaver rhythms. This variation incorporates the rhythmic model variation 13 complementary exchange of quarter and sixteenth notes with variations 1 and 2 syncopations. Variatio 27 a 2 Clav. Every third variation in the series of 30 is a canonfollowing an ascending pattern. Most importantly, at the end of doing everything, he wants to tie it neatly with a bow and "there it all is. This is a virtuosic two-part toccata in 12 16 time. Its zany textural shifts have a purpose: Published on 1 April When the theme returns at the endyou realise this is the last time you will hear that turn into bittersweet E minor melancholy about melancholyand also the last time you will experience the chain of fifths with which Bach escapes from goldberg variations single movement. Lastly there is no mention of the golden goblet among the goldberg variations single movement of the estate when Bach died in The Life and Art of Glenn Gould. In his book The Keyboard Music J.

Goldberg Variations 1-7

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Bach’s use of the single-note ornament in the Goldberg Variations P both the first and final movement, Goldberg Variations.

Bach Goldberg Variations each group of three variations is an arabesque-like movement — a works in which a single theme is taken on a. Bach: Goldberg Variations - Including Documentary 'The Return is the Movement of Tao': Zhu Xiao-Mei, Paul Smaczny: Movies & TV/5(10).

(Goldberg-Variationen) Enjoy the virtuosity of Bach's Goldberg Variations, now that his work is open and freely available for all of us. 14 11 7 4 VARIATIO

Johann Sebastian Bach. The Goldberg Variations * the work can nevertheless be played on a single-manual harpsichord or piano. a Baroque dance movement.

by Kalindi Bellach ©2017


Bach Cello Suite No. 1

“We find a world of emotions and ideas created with only the simplest of materials.” – Lawrence Lesser, cellist

Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) composed Six Suites for solo cello during the six years he served as Kapellmeister in Köthen, Germany (1717–1723). In addition to his position as Kapellmeister, he also composed music for the court of Prince Leopold. During these years, Bach concentrated primarily on secular instrumental music – different from what he was composing when he was living in Weimar. In relation to the entirety of Bach’s compositional output, the time he spent at Köthen was among the most productive in terms of instrumental music, and from this period we received his Six Sonatas [and Partitas] for solo violin, the Well-Tempered Clavier (v. 1), and the six Brandenburg Concerti.

Bach’s first wife, Maria Barbara, passed away in 1720, leaving him with several children to care for. He remarried the next year, to Anna Magdalena Wicke, the daughter of a court trumpet player and an excellent musician in her own right. Anna Magdalena sang soprano in the choir and accepted a position as a copyist, a service she often performed for her husband as well. In fact, most extant copies of his works are in her hand and marked with her signature.

Unlike many composers of the Classical, Romantic, and even twentieth-century) periods, Bach left very little explanation of his works or his thoughts on music and his contemporary musicians behind. What little we do have is speaks chiefly of the pedagogical aspects of his work. For example, his Well-Tempered Clavier included a page explaining its use for clavier students who wished to become fluent in all twenty-four keys along with something similar for professionals who wished to “brush up.”

As evidenced by his devotion to teaching and the complexity of his scores, Bach approached music as both an intellectual and an artistic challenge. This accounts, at least in part, for his attraction to writing solo works; the solo instrumental genre was not particularly popular at the time. Bach’s interest in the theory and construction of music is very much evident in the cello suites. In his biography on Bach, Johann Nikolaus Forkel writes: “How far Bach’s meditation and penetration in the treatment of melody and harmony was carried, how much he was inclined to exhaust all the possibilities of both, appears furthermore from his attempt to contrive a single melody in such a manner that no second singable part could be set against it. At that time it was an established rule that every union of parts must make a whole and exhaust all the notes necessary to [be] the most complete expression of the contents, so that no deficiency should anywhere be sensible by which another part might be rendered possible.” Before Bach, no one had been able to accomplish this with only a single voice.

Still, we can’t take this idea or Bach’s accomplishment of it completely literally. Bach himself made several arrangements of the Cello Suites which included more stops (pitches performed simultaneously), as in the edition for lute. There are also versions for various stringed and bowed instruments with piano accompaniment. However, thinking of the Suites as akin to etudes – that is, both compositional and performative – distinctly impacts how we choose to interpret them.

By his death, Bach had left very little in writing behind. This fact and the shifting musical ideals of the time caused his work to lose popularity in the second half of the eighteenth century, and the Cello Suites were forgotten. He gained back a certain amount of acclaim during the nineteenth century through the promotion of Felix Mendelssohn. However, Mendelssohn glossed over most of the solo instrumental works. Although the Cello Suites were printed as early as 1825, they seldom appeared on concert programs. Occasionally single movements would be performed, but it was not the practice to perform an entire suite as it is today.

It was not until the early twentieth century that the suites began to be taken more seriously as legitimate solo repertoire and moving out of the etude category, with cellist Pablo Casals (1876–1973) responsible for that shift. After finding a copy of the Suites in a little music shop in Barcelona when he was a young student, Casals was thrilled. He labored over the Suites for the next twelve years, finally performing one in its entirety when he was twenty-five years old. Casals was determined that the Suites be taken seriously as works of art. “To Casals,” writes author Amedee Daryl Williams, “they mirrored the very heart and soul of Bach’s creativity.”

Unfortunately, no manuscript copy in Bach’s hand survives. This means that there is no performance practice we can say definitively was supported by the composer, and this has given rise to sometimes heated (and unending!) debates on how the Suites should be performed. A common saying among performers and teachers of the Suites is ‘There are as many interpretations of Bach as there are people in the world.” Musicologist Maurice Riley writes, “Inasmuch as Bach left no dynamic markings, bowings, or tempo indications, these Suites have been a challenge to each successive editor to supply directions and fingerings that will aid the performer in achieving the Baroque style … there are now many editions available … often with conflicting … markings. Artist performers and musicologists have written numerous articles on performance practices for these transcendent works … there is often disagreement, and the reader may be left more confused than informed.”

While Bach was writing the Cello Suites, Germany was still recovering from the Thirty Years’ War, a period of reconstruction that extended beyond Bach’s life. This reconstruction included the integration of French cultural elements into German goldberg variations single movement cultural expressions. Bach would definitely have been aware of these elements, and almost all of his dance music is based on the French tradition begun by dancers at the court of King Louis XIV in the second half of the seventeenth century. This style, which would later develop into ballet, was graceful, balanced, refined, and highly disciplined.

The term suite traces back to the French suivez, which means “to follow.” Beginning in the second half of the Renaissance and continuing through the Baroque period, a suite was a collection of dance movements. Gradually, these dance movements evolved from having a direct relationship to particular dances into short instrumental concert pieces that loosely followed the same forms. These forms were further developed and then formalized in the early Renaissance period.

Another characteristic of Renaissance music that found its way into Bach’s Cello Suites is its connection to oration. In the Suites you can see the influence mostly in the structure of his phrases, which are constructed with a musical syntax and grammar that resembles how a language is constructed.

Baroque suites traditionally include an allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue. However, it was not uncommon to include other movements. In his Cello Suites, Bach augmented the traditional suite by including a prelude and what was thought of at the time as an “optional movement” – for example, a gavotte or a minuet or a bourrée. One of these optional movements was inserted between the sarabande and the gigue in each suite, giving each of Bach’s suites a total of six movements.

The primary purpose of the Prelude was to introduce the material presented later in the suite – literally to “play before” the rest. The Preludes are not dance movements, so Bach was freer to improvise with rhythm and structure. Music writer Eric Siblin supports this idea: “The first measures unfold with the storytelling power of a master improviser.” In fact, the term prelude – praludieren, in German – also functions as a verb that means “to improvise.”

The Prelude from the first suite follows a fairly basic arc. Proportion was very important to Bach, and he often used the golden ratio in structuring his music. His preludes are good examples of this.

The remaining movements are less complex, although they each display unique elements. The allemande is a slightly slower, contemplative German dance (allemande is French for “German”). The allemande is an example of binary form, with two roughly equal sections that are each repeated. Bach wrote it in a slow quadruple (or duple) meter, and began with an anacrusis – like the preparatory plié in ballet – into the opening chord. Each section ends with a short, often one-bar, post-cadential figure and features dotted rhythms. Bach’s allemandes are usually more closely related to the preludes than any other movement, and the allemande in this first suite is no exception.

The next movement is the faster courante – “running” in French. Although the notes move quickly, the beat of the dance is not hurried. Rather, a courante was a “noble, grand, hopeful, and earnest” dance. Like the allemande, it has a binary form, and each section is preceded by an anacrusis. Courantes can also feature hemiola – rhythmic emphasis on the weak beats.

Sarabandes are traditionally slower. The dance’s origin is not certain. The earliest references connect it to dances from Spain and Latin America that would have accompanied singing and an instrumental performance. Musicologists Meredith Little and Natalie Jenne describe the sarabande as a “colorful, tempestuous, exotic dance … its opponents called the sarabande ‘lascivious’ and wrote tracts against it.” They go on to explain that the French “tamed” the sarabande, molding it into something seemingly “calm, serious, and sometimes tender, but ordered, balanced, and sustained.” Gradually, the sarabande lost its connection to dance form and become simply an instrumental performance. Bach’s sarabandes are characterized by a slower tempo, with emphasis placed on the second beat of the triple meter.

The “optional” minuets were written in pairs and are quite joyful. The minuet is a rural French dance that was later adopted for court performance. In Bach’s Suites, each minuet is repeated, forming a double binary form, and is followed by a da capo – a final repeat “from the top.” Rhythmically, these are the least complex of all the movements. German composer Johann Matheson describes them as projecting a characteristic “contentment, pleasantness.” Little and Jenne, in discussing the bourrées (and this is applicable to the minuets as well), add that while these movements do not “expose the depths of a composer’s soul … they do express a genuine, aristocratic joie de vivre.

Like the sarabande, the gigue has several possible sources. Most likely the dance came from the jig of the British Isles, but it could also come from the French – the verb giguer means “to dance” – or from the German word Geige, “violin.” French gigues are often characterized by syncopation and hemiola – that is, by playful or unexpected rhythmic emphases. Bach’s gigues are written in compound duple meter, with two large beats per bar, each of which contains three quick beats; the gigue was adopted by the French court in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Bach’s Cello Suites are dear to so many musicians and music lovers that they border on the sacred – and therefore three hundred years later there is still so much controversy about how they should be performed. Musicologists Valery Lloyd-Watts and Carole L. Bigler, “During the Baroque era, all art was concerned with its power to arouse and affect a person’s emotional response…. It was the composer’s responsibility to write the appropriate patterns of rhythm and harmony [according to the theory of affects or Affectenlehre] into the music and the performer’s responsibility to interpret each affect or emotion so that the listener would immediately experience the desired reaction.” It’s safe to say that Bach fulfilled this mandate – some say too well! Instead of viewing the overabundance of varying (and conflicting) ideals as limiting, I want to appreciate it as enriching both to performance practice and our culture in general. After all, the Suites originally hail from a small town in Germany, and now performers all over the world have taken them into their hearts, making the Suites a global phenomenon that is simultaneously communal and highly personal. As Italian cellist Mario Brunello said, “Bach’s music comes closest to the absolute and to perfection.”


Bach Goldberg Variations

“There is something in it of Divinity more than the eare discovers.” – Sir Thomas Browne, Religio medici

Among all of Bach’s works, his compositions for keyboard have been consistently cherished. The Clavier-Übung (“keyboard practice”) series in particular, of which the Goldberg Variations (BWV 988) are a part, has been continually studied and performed since they were written.

The genesis of the work is, as musicologist Yo Tomita puts it, “surrounded by mysteries.” Bach historian Johann Nikolaus Forkel tells us that Count Keyserlingk, a Russian ambassador to Dresden, commissioned the set of variations to help with his insomnia. Reportedly, he wanted Bach to write something that his manservant could play for him – something of “a character so gentle and somewhat merry that he could be a little cheered” – when he was awake at night. His manservant’s name? Goldberg. However, recent scholarship has cast doubt on Forkel’s sources for this information, and the score is not marked for the count in any known copy, so we don’t know for sure.

Bach composed his Goldberg Variations between 1739 and 1742, intending them to serve both as etudes and performance pieces. There is some discussion amongst musicologists on the relationship between the Goldberg Variations and some of Bach’s other instrumental work. For example, musicologist Peter Williams explains that “looking at these three pieces now [Goldberg Variations, Chaconne in D minor for violin, and Passacaglia in C minor for organ], we can recognize them as presenting three commanding conceptions of variation form, unmatched as a group in the work of any other composer, each totally different in strategy and tactics, but all of them obviously aiming to wrest harmonic variety and create substantial works by deferring to (not merely decorating) a pattern of chords.”

Originally titled An Aria with Diverse Variations, the Goldberg Variations present thirty musical essays not just on the harmonic material of the Aria but on the language of music as Bach heard it. Like the Cello Suites, Bach’s keyboard works have strong elements of oration in the phrasing. As Williams notes, “The use of rhetorical devices or ‘figures’ in speech and poetry is analogous to the use of certain devices in music, leading to the theory of musical rhetoric.” Also like the Cello Suites, the Goldberg Variations display elements from both French and Italian styles. For example, the opening aria shows its French influence in its ornaments, which hint at the French galant style.

Bach was a master of patterns, and his Goldberg Variations is full of examples of his mastery. Williams notes, “We have here a [set of] variations or varied treatments not of a melody but of a series of chords, which are explored in a series of discrete genres and according to a uniquely ingenious plan.” This points toward the idea of perceptual and conceptual shape, or various patterns that are based on different criteria overlaying one another. In this case, the perceptual shape (easily perceived when listening) can be noticed in the contrasts between movements and their points of climax and semi-climax. Conceptually (referring to the patterns present in the score) the pattern is not necessarily apparent to the listener. The thirty variations can be broken down into ten groups of three, each group following the same pattern: dance/genre piece, arabesque (usually making use of both manuals on the harpsichord), and canon. These groups form little arches, with the largest movement in the middle of each. It is also possible to read a pattern of duples in the Goldberg Variations: each movement is structured in exact halves, with two-bar phrase structures, using two manuals, thirty-two pieces in all (which can be broken down evenly), etc. This equal structure in a binary form was not common, as binary movements were usually skewed to include a more developed second half.

The opening aria, upon which the Goldberg Variations are all based is, according to musicologists Meredith Little and Natalie Jenne, “possibly the most poignant and lyrical of Bach’s pieces in sarabande rhythm, and, in fact … easily serves as a textbook model for the sarabande.” Williams adds that the melody, “particularly as it begins, is an exquisite example for the claim that all beautiful melody has a tinge of sadness or … transports us to a world of imagination always inclined by its transience towards melancholy.” American harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick said of the work: “I think myself that it ‘feels special’ because, whatever antecedent this or that feature has, its beauty is both original – seldom like anything else, even in Bach – and at the same time comprehensible, intelligible, coherent, based on simple, ‘truthful’ harmonies … the Goldberg has its own language, but one made from standard vocabulary.”

The Goldberg Variations is perhaps one of the best examples of Bach’s work. In it, as Williams explains, you can see in this work Bach’s “highly systematic approach to composition, actively exploring various styles and compositional techniques, both new and old, within a large but tightly constructed structural boundary, as if to create a unique microcosm in each work.” And yet, all technical elements aside, “what the Goldberg really brings to the listener is a world of experience otherwise unknown, and I am not sure anyone can succeed in describing that world to others.”

"A State of Wonder" redirects here. For the Ann Patchett novel, see.

Bach: The Goldberg Variations is the 1955 debut album of Canadian classical pianist. An interpretation of ( 988), the work launched Gould's career as a renowned international pianist, and became one of the most well-known piano recordings. Sales were "astonishing" for a classical album: it was reported to have sold 40,000 copies by 1960, and had sold more than 100,000 by the time of Gould's death in 1982. By year 2000, the sale of his 1981 recording of the Goldberg Variations exceeded two million copies.

At the time of the album's release, Bach's Goldberg Variations—a set of 30 beginning and ending with an —was outside the standard piano repertoire, having been recorded on the instrument only a few times before, either on small labels or unreleased. The work was considered esoteric id="cite_ref-Bazzana150-151_5-0" class="reference"> and technically demanding, requiring awkward hand crossing in various places when played on a piano. Gould's album both established the Goldberg Variations within the contemporary classical repertoire and made him an internationally famous pianist nearly "overnight". First played in concert by Gould in 1954, the composition was a staple of Gould's performances in the years following the recording.


Recording process[]

The recordings were made in 1955 at in over four days between June 10 and June 16, a few weeks after Gould signed his contract., the company's classical music division, released the album in January 1956. Bach: The Goldberg Variations became Columbia's bestselling classical album and earned Gould an international reputation. The record is now in the catalog of.

At least one record-company executive questioned Gould's choice of the then-obscure Goldberg Variations for his recorded debut. In a 1981 interview, Gould reflected on the studio's situation: "I think the objections [Columbia] had, which were mild and expressed in a most friendly fashion, were quite logical. I was twenty-two years old and proposed doing my recording debut with the Goldberg Variations, which was supposed to be the private preserve, of, perhaps, or someone of that generation and stature. They thought that possibly some more modest undertaking was advisable." Then aged 22, Gould was confident and assertive about his work, and prevailed in the decision as to what he would record for his debut—having also ensured that his contract granted him artistic freedom. Columbia recognized his talent and tolerated his eccentricities; on June 25 the company issued a good-natured press release describing Gould's unique habits and accoutrements. He brought to the studio a special piano chair, bottles of pills, and unseasonal winter clothing; once there, he would soak his hands and arms in very hot water for twenty minutes before playing. Gould often had trouble finding a piano he liked; the Variations were recorded on a piano he had acquired in 1955 (model CD 19), which had been shipped around the northeastern United States for his concerts.

The album gained attention for Gould's unique pianistic method, which incorporated a finger technique involving great clarity of articulation (a "detached "), even at great speed, and little. Gould's piano teacher,, had encouraged Gould to practice "", which required very slowly tapping the fingers of the playing hand with the free hand. According to Guerrero, tapping taught the pianist an economy of muscle movement that would enable precision at high speeds. Gould "tapped" each Goldberg variation before recording it, which took about 32 hours.

The extreme tempi of the 1955 performance made for a short record, as did Gould's decision not to play many of the (each Goldberg variation consists of two parts, traditionally played in an A–A–B–B format). The length of a performance of the Goldberg Variations can therefore vary drastically: Gould's 1955 recording is 38 minutes 34 seconds long, while his reconsidered, slower 1981 version (see below) is 51:18. By way of contrast, fellow Canadian 's 1999 record is 78:32.

The artist's ability to perfect his work in the studio—what Gould called "take-twoness"—attracted Gould from the beginning. He recorded no fewer than 21 versions of the introductory aria before being satisfied. Over the course of his career, Gould became more and more interested in the creative possibilities of the studio.

Gould wrote the to the recording. Concluding his back-cover essay on the Goldberg Variations, he wrote: "It is, in short, music which observes neither end nor beginning, music with neither real climax nor real resolution, music which, like lovers, 'rests lightly on the wings of the unchecked wind.' It has, then, unity through intuitive perception, unity born of craft and scrutiny, mellowed by mastery achieved, and revealed to us here, as so rarely in art, in the vision of subconscious design exulting upon a pinnacle of potency."


Gould commented in a 1959 interview with that he had begun to study the Goldberg Variations in about 1950, at around the age of seventeen. It was one of the first works that he had learned "entirely without my teacher", and which he had "made up my mind about relatively [early]". He noted that his performance view of the Variations now involved slowing the piece down: "[That] is about the only musical change that has gone on, but it implies, I think, possibly an approach of slightly greater breadth now than at that time... I was very much in a 'let's get the show on the road and get through with it' sort of mood [during the recording]. I felt that to linger unduly over anything would be to take away from a sort of overall unity of things... In part it was brought about by a reaction against so much piano playing which I had heard and, in fact, part of the way in which I myself was taught, which was in the school of the Romantic pianists of the / tradition".

Gould later became more critical of his 1955 interpretation, expressing reservations about its fast tempi and pianistic affectation. He found much of it "just too fast for comfort", and lamented the, which sounded "like a nocturne"—to Gould, an undesirable quality. He continued, "I can no longer recognize the person who did that. To me today that piece has intensity without any sort of false glamour. Not a pianistic or instrumental intensity, a spiritual intensity."

Shortly before his death in 1982, Gould re-recorded the Goldberg Variations and in in the in New York City; it was the last album to be recorded in that studio before it closed for good. He largely abandoned the showmanship of the 1955 performance and replaced it with a more introspective interpretation that included more calculated and. For the 1981 version, Gould sought to unify the variations differently, through his choices of tempi: he played more of the repeats, and endeavoured to express proportional rhythmic relations between the variations. Arriving within a year of his death, the 1981 recording is popularly recognized as "autumnal", a symbolic testament to Gould's career.

In 2002, Sony issued a three-compact-disc collection titled A State of Wonder: The Complete Goldberg Variations 1955 & 1981. It includes the 1955 and 1981 Goldberg recordings (the latter from tapes), and a third disc with 1955 studio and a lengthy interview with Gould documentarian and music critic.

In 2012, Sony issued Glenn Gould, The Complete Bach Collection of 44 discs, which included four CDs and one DVD of Glenn Gould's Goldberg Variations recordings: CD1 for 1955 recording, CD14, 1955 recording re-channeled for stereo, CD31 for his 1981 recording and CD32 for his live in Salzburg recording; DVD6:Glenn Gould Plays Bach:The Goldberg Variations.

At the, the album won the jury vote for the Heritage Prize in the 1976-1985 category.

See also[]


  1. ^ Fleming, Colin (28 November 2003). "Reissues: Glenn Gould - 'A State of Wonder: The Complete Goldberg Variations 1955 & 1981' [review]". Goldmine. 29 (24): 63.  This article may be found online as Fleming, Colin (12 July 2004).. : Beyond Jazz. 
  2. , p. 153)
  3. Michael Stegemann, Glenn Gould: Bach for the 21st century, introduction to Glenn Gould, The Complete Bach Collection, p. 5, Sony Classical
  4. ^, pp. 150 – 151)
  5. Siepmann, Jeremy (Jan 1990). "Glenn Gould and the Interpreter's Prerogative". The Musical Times. The Musical Times, Vol. 131, No. 1763. 131 (1763): 25–27. :.  . 
  6. , p. 342) "Interview 8"
  7. , p. 73)
  8. , pp. 199 – 200
  9. Kingwell, book jacket. See chapter 21, "Takes".
  10. Sanderson, Blair.. AllMusic. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 
  11. Colter Walls, Seth (26 March 2017).. Pitchfork. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 
  12. , p. 135) "Interview 3"
  13. , p. 453)
  14. , p. 332) "Interview 7"
  15. , p. 455)
  16. . , October 25, 2017.


External links[]

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